Category Archives: Business Value

Crossing the EA Chasm: Re-visioning ArchiMate 3.0 Relations as Verbs

COPYRIGHT © 2016-2017 by Michael Herman, Toronto Canada. All rights reserved.

[Updated: February 6, 2017]

In the article Crossing the EA Chasm: Re-visioning the ArchiMate Specification, I proposed a new architectural framework for re-visioning the current ArchiMate 3.0 Specification.

In this article, I propose using the following list of verbs to either augment or replace the existing ArchiMate relationship names in the Specification and move towards a more humane, more understandable, more usable, and more acceptable language for enterprise architecture.

modelmate-relationship-verbs-2017-02-06

Table 1. Proposed List of Verbs to Augment or Replace
the Current ArchiMate 3.0 Relationship Names

An interesting observation: Note the verbs that start with “Is*”.  They appear in either the “Source-Target” (ForwardVerb) or the “Target-Source” (ReverseVerb) columns but not both for a given relationship.  This wasn’t deliberate – this is just the way it turned out.  Does this indicate anything about which direction is the natural direction for the relationship to point to?

What do you think of this proposal?  Please post a comment below, email me, or post a reply in the LinkedIn ArchiMate group.

To learn more about the background and history of this proposal, check out:

Best regards,
Michael Herman (Toronto)
Parallelspace Corporation

mwherman@parallelspace.net

*ArchiMate is a registered trademark of The Open Group.

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Filed under ArchiMate, Architecture Reference Models, Business Value, Crossing the EA Charm, Enterprise Architecture, Enterprise Architecture Chasm, ModelMate, ModelMate Information Architecture for ArchiMate, ModelMate Information Architecture for Languages, The Open Group

Graphitization of Ray Dalio’s Principles: Iteration 1

COPYRIGHT © 2016-2017 by Michael Herman, Toronto Canada. All rights reserved.

[If you “only want to see the pictures”, scroll down to Figure 4.]

This article is the second in a series on Graphitization. Click here to explore the other articles in this series.

Background

ray-dalioRay Dalio is Chairman & Chief Investment Officer at Bridgewater Associates, L.P., the world’s largest hedge fund, and is well known for The Principles that he and his colleagues at Bridgewater use to govern themselves and each other. Mr. Dalio has published the 200+ Principles in a 123-page document and made the content publically available on a dedicated website: Principles by Ray Dalio (“The Principles”). Here is his description of The Principles…

“What is written here is just my understanding of what it takes: my most fundamental life principles, my approach to getting what I want, and my “management principles,” which are based on those foundations. Taken together, these principles are meant to paint a picture of a process for the systematic pursuit of truth and excellence and for the rewards that accompany this pursuit. I put them in writing for people to consider in order to help Bridgewater and the people I care about most.”

I encourage you to read more of his Introduction here.

What is Graphitization?

Graphitization is a data science approach for collecting, organizing, analyzing, and visualizing any domain of endeavor by using graphs – networks of connected nodes and relationships with each node and relationship annotated with additional descriptive information (metadata).

In the article Graphitization of the Enterprise, I’ve provided a number of illustrations of how one field of endeavor, the continuous transformation of large enterprise organizations, can benefit from graphitization. My blog contains several additional examples of graphitization applied to traditional enterprise architecture; for example, Crossing the EA Chasm: Automating Enterprise Architecture Modeling #2.

Why not try applying graphitization to something completely different?

Graphitization of Ray Dalio’s Principles

A few weeks ago (December 22, 2016), the Wall Street Journal published an article (The World’s Largest Hedge Fund Is Building an Algorithmic Model From its Employees’ Brains) which describes Mr. Dalio’s vision for creating “The Book of the Future.”

“One employee familiar with the project described it as “like trying to make Ray’s brain into a computer.””

2 + 2 = ?  You guessed it. Why not try to graphitize part of Mr. Dalio’s brain?

That is, why not try to turn The Principles into a computer model that documents each Principle, its hierarchical inter-relationships, and, via some sophisticated cloud-based text analysis services, visualize all of the important interconnections based on a set of computer-chosen key phrases?

This article documents Iteration 1 of the Graphitization of Ray Dalio’s Principles.

Wisdom in, Wisdom out

Today, there are several easy-to-use technologies that enable developers to view web pages as sophisticated databases.  The Principles website (a single web page) is no exception.

A simple query like the one below makes it is easy to exact the hierarchy of Sections, Topics, Principles, Subprinciples, Summary Paragraphs, Questions, Bullets, Figures, etc. from The Principles using a single statement.

modelmate-ray-dalio-html-query

Figure 1. The Principles Web Page Query

A sample portion of The Principles web page appears below and has the following structure:

  • “To Get The Culture Right…” is a Section. There are 4 Sections at the top level of the Publication.
  • “TRUST IN TRUTH” is a Topic and it is also a numbered Principle.
  • “Realize that you have nothing to fear from truth.” is a numbered Principle.
  • Principles can contain numbered Subprinciples.
  • Topics, Principles, and Subprinciples can have (unnumbered) Summary Paragraphs, Questions, Bullets, Figures, etc.

Topics, Principles, and Subprinciples are numbered sequentially; there is no hierarchical numbering scheme.

Ray-Dalio-Principles-radically-transparent-web.png

Figure 2. Web Page Sample: The Principles By Ray Dalio

In my ModelMate model for The Principles, 3 classes of key phrases are used to cross-index each Topic, Principle, Subprinciple, etc.

  1. Key Topics – short phrases deemed to be particularly relevant and interesting across the entire document (i.e. the corpus)
  2. Key Phrases – short phrases deemed to be of particular importance within the scope of a single title, paragraph of text, question, or bullet.
  3. Other Phrases – additional key phrases chosen because they are particularly relevant to Bridgewater, Mr. Dalio, and The Principles.

In total, there are 2470 key phases; about 200 of these are Key Topics selected by a cloud-based text analytics service, about 300 are Other Phases. The remaining Key Phrases (with a few overlaps) were selected by a different text analytics service that was run against the text of each individual Topic, Principle, Subprinciple, etc.

A sample of the ingested The Principles web page content looks like the following (click to enlarge):

exampledata-keyphrases

Figure 3. Ingested Web Page

Results of Iteration 1

The entire structure and content of The Principles was ingested during Iteration 1 of this project:

  • 210 principles comprised of 768 artifacts (titles, paragraphs, questions, bullets, …)
  • 767 structural relationships
  • 2470 key phrases
  • 6126 key phrase-principle semantic relationships

The sample queries below highlight The Principles that are related to 2 critically important concepts at Bridgewater: “radically” and “transparent” (including all words that have these words as reasonable root words).

The single line queries found all artifacts that were in some way related to the 2 key phases; then calculated the traceability up to through to the top (beginning) of The Principles (click to enlarge).

ray-dalio-principles-radically-transparent

Figure 4. All Topics, Principles, Subprinciples, etc. with Traceability to the Key Phases “radically” and “transparent”

The large orange dot represents the top (the root of the web page). The large blue dots represent the 4 top-level Sections in The Principles:

  • To Get the Culture Right…
  • To Get the People Right…
  • To Perceive, Diagnose, and Solve Problems…
  • To Make Decisions Effectively…

The green dots are Topics; the red dots are Principles; and, the purple dots are Subprinciples. Key Phrases appear as pink dots.  The gray dots are Commentary Paragraphs, Questions, Bullets, Figures, etc.

Figure 5 (below) includes some exploration (expansion) of Principal 2. Realize that you have nothing to fear from truth.

ray-dalio-principles-radically-transparent-plus

Figure 5. Principal 2. Realize that you have nothing to fear from truth.

Conclusions

In the end, extending the ModelMate platform to support the above produced more learning than what I’ve been able to glean from subsequent exploration of the graphitization of The Principles. Perhaps someone with more familiarity with The Principles can contact me with some interesting use cases. I’m extremely curious to derive more value from this model

This work on this project was made infinitely easier through the use of the ModelMate platform (powered by the Neo4j graph database).

To see a more meaningful visualization of The Principles, check out Graphitization of Ray Dalio’s Principles: Iteration 2.

Best regards,

Michael Herman (Toronto)
Parallelspace Corporation
mwherman@parallelspace.net

5 Comments

Filed under Automated Application Architecture Analysis, Business Value, Data Science, Graphitization, How do we think, ModelMate, Progressive Enterprise Architecture Map (PEAM), The Principles

ModelMate Architecture Reference Model

[Updated October 28, 2016]

This article describes the architecture reference model for deploying a comprehensive, integrated enterprise architecture modeling and data science platform based on ModelMate.

The audience for this article is IT professionals including enterprise architects, solution architects, and security architects who want increased visibility into the deployment of their custom applications, entire data center environments, business process definitions, and LOB applications such as SAP, Oracle Financials, Salesforce, Microsoft SharePoint, and Microsoft Dynamics CRM.

A primary use case is organizations with a requirement to move one or more on-premise applications or capabilities to the cloud or need a better understanding of how their hybrid on-premise/cloud environments (e.g. Salesforce cloud applications and on-premise or third-party customer loyalty solutions).

ModelMate

Quoting from Crossing the EA Chasm: Open Repository Strategies for Enterprise Architecture, “ModelMate is a working implementation of a Microsoft SQL Server and Neo4j graph database-based repository for managing arbitrarily large collections of arbitrary entities, properties, relationships, views, etc.to enable analysis, visualization, and understanding using easily-available open source and COTS (commercial off the shelf) business intelligence (BI), data visualization, and machine learning (ML) platforms, tools and cloud services.”

The primary goal of ModelMate is to provide automated support for the Continuous Transformation Framework of the Progressive Enterprise Architecture Model (PEAM) depicted in Figure 1.

progressive-ea-model-1-0-9-peam3-ea-chasm-auto-dots

Figure 1. Progressive Enterprise Architecture Model

Continuous Transformation Framework

The Continuous Transformation Framework is a Deming Cycle based on the following 4 phases:

  1. Listening & Learning
  2. Knowledge > New Designs
  3. Plan & Act
  4. Transformative Change > New Outcomes

The Framework is depicted as a continuous cycle as shown in Figure 1 above. The Framework can also be flattened and presented as a (repeating) sequence of 4 processes (Figure 2).

peam-continuous-transformation

Figure 2. Continuous Transformation Framework

Why all of this discussion about PEAM and the Continuous Transformation Framework? It is because to be able to understand and value the ModelMate Architecture Reference Model, it’s important to understand the class of problems it is trying to solve. Automated support for Continuous Transformation is the pain; ModelMate is the pain killer.

ModelMate Architecture Reference Model

There are 3 high-level layers in the ModelMate Architecture Reference Model:

  • Apps that use the ModelMate repository
  • Continuous Transformation Framework
  • ModelMate Open Hybrid Repository (MOHR)

These 3 layers (and 4 categories of apps) are illustrated in Figure 3.  Each app category corresponds to one phase in the Continuous Transformation Framework.

marm-modelmate-open-hybrid-repository-app-categories

Figure 3. ModelMate Architecture Reference Model: 3 Layers

The choice of apps that your organization selects for each category depends on the medium-term and long-term drivers and goals for your enterprise architecture program. The app groups map to specific phases of the Framework:

  1. Listen & Learn phase
    • Ingestion
  2. Knowledge > New Designs phase
    • Pure Modeling and Layout apps
    • Modeling, Layout & Visualization apps
    • Data Science apps
    • Custom Mobile and Web apps
  3. Plan & Act phase
    • Program & Project Management apps
  4. Transformative Change > New Outcomes phase
    • Operations and Change Management apps

Figure 4 lists a sample or representative list of applications that can fulfill the needs of each app category (each phase of the Continuous Transformation Framework).

marm-modelmate-open-hybrid-repository-apps

Figure 4. ModelMate Architecture Reference Model: Apps

Ingestion

Ingestion apps are responsible for scanning the enterprise’s operational environment: systems, assets, and processes. Information captured about each entity includes its structure, metadata, performance and usage data.  Operational business data is usually not needed and not captured.

Sources of data include business process logs, configuration management databases, LOB application configurations (SAP, SharePoint, Salesforce, Microsoft Dynamics CRM, Oracle Financials, etc.), operations management systems (Azure OMS, Microsoft System Center, etc.), Microsoft MAP Toolkit, performance monitoring logs, usage and audit logs, etc.

These are inbound data sources used to automatically update and maintain the EA models stored in ModelMate. Ingestion apps are the primary data sources for the Listen & Learn phase of the Continuous Transformation Framework.

Pure Modeling and Layout Apps

There are several types of apps that comprise the Knowledge > New Designs phase of the Framework.  Pure Modeling and Layout Apps are applications that support the manual modeling of entities, relationships, and metadata as well as the manual layout of stakeholder specific views.

The apps in the group do not support any built-in analysis and visualization capabilities beyond manually-created basic views. In addition, pure modeling and layout apps do not include an end-user scripting capability for performing automated, user-defined custom analysis or visualization.

Archi is an example of a pure modeling and layout app.

Modeling, Layout & Visualization Apps

These types of apps support manual modeling of entities, relationships and metadata and the manual layout of stakeholder specific views but also include basic, advanced, and/or custom analysis and visualization capabilities.

BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio and other advanced EA modelers are examples of apps that belong to the Modeling, Layout & Visual Apps group – supporting the needs of the Knowledge > New Designs phase of the Framework.

Data Science Apps

Data Science Apps include non-traditional “enterprise architecture” modeling and analysis apps. This group includes both open sources as well as COTS (commercial off the shelf) data science tools and platforms. Data Science apps provide advanced analysis, machine learning and visualization capabilities enabled through open access to enterprise architecture data via standard protocols and APIs (e.g.ArchiMate Exchange File Format, OData, SQL Server stored procedures, entity models, and advanced query and analysis languages such as R, Cypher, and T-SQL).

Examples of Data Science apps include: R Studio, Microsoft Power BI, Tableau, Domo, Linkurious, Microsoft Excel and the Neo4j graph browser.

Custom Mobile and Web Apps

This is the last group of apps that support the Knowledge > New Designs phase of the Framework and includes both no-code and code platforms for creating custom reporting, analysis, visualization apps.

No-code custom apps designed with Microsoft PowerApps (and Microsoft PowerFlow) are examples of the former; traditional C#/VB.Net, Java, and Node.js/JavaScript apps are examples of the latter.

Program & Project Management Apps

Program & Project Management Apps support the Plan & Act phase of the Framework.

Traditional portfolio, program, and project managements apps are examples of applications in this group. Collaboration tools such as Microsoft SharePoint, Confluence, and Jira can also belong in this group. Collaboration tools can also be considered as “horizontal” solutions that can be used across all phases of the Framework.

Operations and Change Management Apps

All of the effort to create and manage a functioning enterprise architecture solution only realizes direct business value when it leads to Transformative Changes being made in the enterprise’s strategies, systems, assets, and processes; and measurable, positive New Outcomes result from the changes.

Examples of apps in this category include change management applications that support IT Service Management (ITSM) disciplines such as ITIL. ServiceNow is an example of an ITSM app.

Please provide your feedback in the Comments section below or feel free to email me directly.

Best regards,
Michael Herman (Toronto)
Parallelspace Corporation
mwherman@parallelspace.net

*ArchiMate is a registered trademark of The Open Group.

All other trademarks, servicemarks, registered trademarks, and registered servicemarks are the property of their respective owners.

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Filed under ArchiMate, Automated Application Architecture Analysis, Automated Enterprise Architecture Modeling, Business Value, continuous transformation, Crossing the EA Charm, Data Science, ModelMate, Power BI, Progressive Enterprise Architecture Map (PEAM), Salesforce, SharePoint

What’s the difference between improving the design and operation of an aircraft engine vs. an enterprise?

Answer: Nothing

Continuous Transformation 2

Continuous Transformation 1.png

Continuous Transformation is a key principle of the Progressive Enterprise Architecture Model (PEAM); part of the practice of Total Enterprise Architecture Management (TEAM).

Best regards,
Michael Herman (Toronto)
Parallelspace Corporation

mwherman@parallelspace.net

1 Comment

Filed under Architecture Reference Models, Business Value, Crossing the EA Charm, Enterprise Architecture, Enterprise Architecture Chasm, Progressive Enterprise Architecture Map (PEAM), The Open Group

[Enterprise Architecture, Big Data, CRM, ERP, …] Tools and Methods Don’t Generate Business Value

[Updated: April 23, 2017]

Enterprise architecture and other tools and methods don’t generate business value – plain and simple; at least, not direct business value. This applies to many categories of enterprise software including but not limited to:

  • business intelligence
  • big data
  • enterprise analytics
  • CRM
  • ERP, etc.

It’s true. You don’t have to think about. You disagree? …or otherwise, want proof? Read on…

Read on…

At best, these tools and methods can enable or aid in the creation of increased business value.  This is actually pretty simple (in hindsight).

Real business value is only realized when an organization’s operational strategies, systems, assets, and processes experience measurable, positive Transformative Change – whether enabled by the use of a particular tool or method; or not.

Here’s the diagram… (click on any of these figures to enlarge them)

Parallelspace-Business Value from Transformative Change1

Figure 1. Enterprise Architecture Management

Here is some additional information on the ModelMate Continuous Transformation Framework as well as where and how business value is created.

Parallelspace-Business Value from Transformative Change2.png

Figure 2a. Continuous Transformation Framework

Parallelspace-Business Value from Transformative Change3.png

Figure 2b. Continuous Transformation Framework

Parallelspace-Business Value from Transformative Change4

Figure 2c. Continuous Transformation Framework

Here’s a more recent elaboration on the Continuous Transformation Framework described above.

progressive-ea-model-1-0-9-peam3-ea-chasm-auto-dots

Figure 3. Continuous Transformation Framework (updated)

The articles below go further to identify and define the gap that exists between the enterprise architecture reference model for the organization and the organization’s operational systems, assets and processes as the Enterprise Architecture Chasm. (Similarly, there is a gap between the strategy and reality is called the Strategy Chasm).

Related Articles

Best regards,
Michael Herman (Toronto)
mwherman@parallelspace.net

4 Comments

Filed under Business Value, Enterprise Architecture