Controlled Vocabulary (Vocabulary) – list of distinct, selected terms or keywords
Dictionary or Glossary – a vocabulary with definition(s)
Grammar – a set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given language
Taxonomy – terms from a vocabulary, dictionary or glossary that are structured or organized by a classification system that is most often hierarchical in nature (but this is not a requirement).
Folksonomy – terms from a vocabulary, dictionary or glossary are categorized by a set of users’ tags or keywords.
Ontology, Semantic Network, Knowledge Graphs – superset of capabilities relative to a taxonomy that includes properties (with or without data types) as well as potentially arbitrary interrelationships; a set of types, properties, and relationships.
Good (complete) references: