Tag Archives: development

Ethereum .NET Development Examples using the Nethereum Integration Libraries

This is an early version of an article that is intended to help developers who have a basic knowledge of the Ethereum blockchain platform and want to learn how to program against the Ethereum platform using the Nethereum .NET libraries.

I’ll add more to this article at a later date but, for now, I’m using it to publish a series of 10+ .NET C# examples of how to use the Nethereum libraries to perform the most common task against the Ethereum blockchain platform.

The list of most common tasks includes the following:

  1. Get Protocol Version
  2. Get Max Block Number
  3. Get Account Balance
  4. Send Ether
  5. Wait for Transaction Receipt
  6. Scan Blocks in Blockchain
  7. List Personal Accounts (and their Balances)
  8. Scan Transactions in Blockchain
  9. Interact with an Existing (Deployed) Contract
  10. Interact with an Existing (Deployed) Contract with Events
  11. Get All Event Changes
  12. Get Contract Values History

Here is the primary C# file:

  • TextExamples.cs
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

using Nethereum.Hex.HexTypes;
using Nethereum.Web3;

namespace MWH.MyNethereum.QuickRef
{
 static public class TaskExamples
 {
 const int UNLOCK_TIMEOUT = 2 * 60; // 2 minutes (arbitrary)
 const int SLEEP_TIME = 5 * 1000; // 5 seconds (arbitrary)
 const int MAX_TIMEOUT = 2 * 60 * 1000; // 2 minutes (arbirtrary)

// These static public variables do not represent a recommended pattern
 static public string LastProtocolVersion = "";
 static public string LastTxHash = "";
 static public Nethereum.RPC.Eth.DTOs.TransactionReceipt LastTxReceipt = null;
 static public HexBigInteger LastMaxBlockNumber = new HexBigInteger(0);

static public async Task GetProtocolVersionExample(Web3 web3)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("GetProtocolVersionExample:");

var protocolVersion = await web3.Eth.ProtocolVersion.SendRequestAsync();
 Console.WriteLine("protocolVersion:\t" + protocolVersion.ToString());
 LastProtocolVersion = protocolVersion;
 }

static public async Task GetMaxBlockExample(Web3 web3)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("GetMaxBlockExample:");

var maxBlockNumber = await web3.Eth.Blocks.GetBlockNumber.SendRequestAsync();
 Console.WriteLine("maxBlockNumber:\t" + maxBlockNumber.Value.ToString());
 LastMaxBlockNumber = maxBlockNumber;
 }

static public async Task ScanBlocksExample(Web3 web3, ulong startBlockNumber, ulong endBlockNumber)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("ScanBlocksExample:");

long txTotalCount = 0;
 for (ulong blockNumber = startBlockNumber; blockNumber <= endBlockNumber; blockNumber++)
 {
 var blockParameter = new Nethereum.RPC.Eth.DTOs.BlockParameter(blockNumber);
 var block = await web3.Eth.Blocks.GetBlockWithTransactionsByNumber.SendRequestAsync(blockParameter);
 var trans = block.Transactions;
 int txCount = trans.Length;
 txTotalCount += txCount;
 if (blockNumber % 1000 == 0) Console.Write(".");
 if (blockNumber % 10000 == 0)
 {
 DateTime blockDateTime = Helpers.UnixTimeStampToDateTime((double)block.Timestamp.Value);
 Console.WriteLine(blockNumber.ToString() + " " + txTotalCount.ToString() + " " + blockDateTime.ToString());
 }
 }
 Console.WriteLine();
 }

static public async Task ScanTxExample(Web3 web3, ulong startBlockNumber, ulong endBlockNumber)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("ScanTxExample:");

long txTotalCount = 0;
 for (ulong blockNumber = startBlockNumber; blockNumber <= endBlockNumber; blockNumber++)
 {
 var blockParameter = new Nethereum.RPC.Eth.DTOs.BlockParameter(blockNumber);
 var block = await web3.Eth.Blocks.GetBlockWithTransactionsByNumber.SendRequestAsync(blockParameter);
 var trans = block.Transactions;
 int txCount = trans.Length;
 txTotalCount += txCount;
 foreach (var tx in trans)
 {
 try
 {
 var bn = tx.BlockNumber.Value;
 var th = tx.TransactionHash;
 var ti = tx.TransactionIndex.Value;

var rpt = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(th);
 var status = rpt.Status.Value;

var nc = tx.Nonce.Value;
 var from = tx.From;

Console.WriteLine(th.ToString() + " " + ti.ToString() + " " + from.ToString() + " " + status.ToString());

var to = tx.To;
 if (to == null) to = "to:NULL";
 var v = tx.Value.Value;
 var g = tx.Gas.Value;
 var gp = tx.GasPrice.Value;
 Console.WriteLine(th.ToString() + " " + ti.ToString() + " " + nc.ToString() + " " + from.ToString() + " " + to.ToString() + " " + v.ToString() + " " + g.ToString() + " " + gp.ToString());
 }
 catch (Exception ex)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("ScanTxExample.Tx:\t" + ex.ToString());
 if (ex.InnerException != null) Console.WriteLine("ScanTxExample.Tx:\t" + ex.InnerException.ToString());
 }
 }
 Console.WriteLine();
 }
 }

static public async Task GetAccountBalanceExample(Web3 web3, string accountAddress)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("GetAccountBalanceExample:");

var balanceWei = await web3.Eth.GetBalance.SendRequestAsync(accountAddress);
 var balanceEther = Web3.Convert.FromWei(balanceWei.Value);
 Console.WriteLine("accountAddress:\t" + accountAddress.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("balanceEther:\t" + balanceEther.ToString());
 }

static public async Task ListPersonalAccountsExample(Web3 web3)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("ListPersonalAccountsExample:");

var accounts = await web3.Personal.ListAccounts.SendRequestAsync();
 foreach (var account in accounts)
 {
 var balanceWei = await web3.Eth.GetBalance.SendRequestAsync(account);
 var balanceEther = Web3.Convert.FromWei(balanceWei.Value);
 Console.WriteLine("account:\t" + account + " balanceEther:\t" + balanceEther.ToString());
 }
 }

static public async Task SendEtherExample(Web3 web3, string fromAddress, string fromPassword, string toAddress, long amountWei)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("SendEtherExample:");

var unlockResult = await web3.Personal.UnlockAccount.SendRequestAsync(fromAddress, fromPassword, UNLOCK_TIMEOUT);
 var sendTxHash = await web3.Eth.TransactionManager.SendTransactionAsync(fromAddress, toAddress, new HexBigInteger(amountWei));
 Console.WriteLine("fromAddress:\t" + fromAddress.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("toAddress:\t" + toAddress.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("amountWei:\t" + amountWei.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("sendTxHash:\t" + sendTxHash.ToString());
 LastTxHash = sendTxHash;
 }

static public async Task WaitForTxReceiptExample(Web3 web3, string txHash)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("WaitForTxReceiptExample:");

int timeoutCount = 0;
 var txReceipt = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash);
 while (txReceipt == null && timeoutCount < MAX_TIMEOUT)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("Sleeping...");
 Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME);
 txReceipt = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash);
 timeoutCount += SLEEP_TIME;
 }
 Console.WriteLine("timeoutCount " + timeoutCount.ToString());
 LastTxReceipt = txReceipt;
 }

static public async Task InteractWithExistingContractExample(Web3 web3, string fromAddress, string fromPassword, string contractAddress, string contractAbi)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("InteractWithExistingContractExample:");

var contract = web3.Eth.GetContract(contractAbi, contractAddress);

var setMessageFunction = contract.GetFunction("setMsg");
 var getMessageFunction = contract.GetFunction("getMsg");

string nowTimestamp = DateTime.UtcNow.ToString() + " UTC";
 Console.WriteLine("now:\t" + nowTimestamp);

var unlockResult = await web3.Personal.UnlockAccount.SendRequestAsync(fromAddress, fromPassword, UNLOCK_TIMEOUT);
 var txHash1 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, 1, "Hello World");
 Console.WriteLine("txHash1:\t" + txHash1.ToString());
 var txHash2 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, 2, nowTimestamp);
 Console.WriteLine("txHash2:\t" + txHash2.ToString());

var txReceipt2 = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash2);
 int timeoutCount = 0;
 while (txReceipt2 == null && timeoutCount < MAX_TIMEOUT)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("Sleeping...");
 Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME);
 txReceipt2 = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash2);
 timeoutCount += SLEEP_TIME;
 }
 Console.WriteLine("timeoutCount:\t" + timeoutCount.ToString());

var txReceipt3 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAndWaitForReceiptAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, null, 2, nowTimestamp + " Wait");
 Console.WriteLine("txReceipt3:\t" + txReceipt3.TransactionHash.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("txReceipt3:\t" + txReceipt3.CumulativeGasUsed.Value.ToString());

var getResult1 = await getMessageFunction.CallAsync<string>(1);
 Console.WriteLine("getResult1:\t" + getResult1.ToString());
 var getResult2 = await getMessageFunction.CallAsync<string>(2);
 Console.WriteLine("getResult2:\t" + getResult2.ToString());
 }

static public async Task InteractWithExistingContractWithEventsExample(Web3 web3, string fromAddress, string fromPassword, string contractAddress, string contractAbi)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("InteractWithExistingContractWithEventsExample:");

var contract = web3.Eth.GetContract(contractAbi, contractAddress);

var setMessageFunction = contract.GetFunction("setMsg");
 var getMessageFunction = contract.GetFunction("getMsg");
 var multipliedEvent = contract.GetEvent("MultipliedEvent");
 var newMessageEvent = contract.GetEvent("NewMessageEvent");

var filterAllMultipliedEvent = await multipliedEvent.CreateFilterAsync();
 var filterAllNewMessageEvent = await newMessageEvent.CreateFilterAsync();

string nowTimestamp = DateTime.UtcNow.ToString() + " UTC";
 Console.WriteLine("now:\t" + nowTimestamp);

var unlockResult = await web3.Personal.UnlockAccount.SendRequestAsync(fromAddress, fromPassword, UNLOCK_TIMEOUT);
 var txHash1 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, 1, "Hello World");
 Console.WriteLine("txHash1:\t" + txHash1.ToString());
 var txHash2 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, 2, nowTimestamp);
 Console.WriteLine("txHash2:\t" + txHash2.ToString());

var txReceipt2 = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash2);
 int timeoutCount = 0;
 while (txReceipt2 == null && timeoutCount < MAX_TIMEOUT)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("Sleeping...");
 Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME);
 txReceipt2 = await web3.Eth.Transactions.GetTransactionReceipt.SendRequestAsync(txHash2);
 timeoutCount += SLEEP_TIME;
 }
 Console.WriteLine("timeoutCount:\t" + timeoutCount.ToString());

var txReceipt3 = await setMessageFunction.SendTransactionAndWaitForReceiptAsync(fromAddress, new HexBigInteger(900000), null, null, 2, nowTimestamp + " Wait");
 Console.WriteLine("txReceipt3:\t" + txReceipt3.TransactionHash.ToString());
 Console.WriteLine("txReceipt3:\t" + txReceipt3.CumulativeGasUsed.Value.ToString());

var getResult1 = await getMessageFunction.CallAsync<string>(1);
 Console.WriteLine("getResult1:\t" + getResult1.ToString());
 var getResult2 = await getMessageFunction.CallAsync<string>(2);
 Console.WriteLine("getResult2:\t" + getResult2.ToString());

var logMultipliedEvents = await multipliedEvent.GetFilterChanges<FunctionOutputHelpers.MultipliedEventArgs>(filterAllMultipliedEvent);
 foreach (var mea in logMultipliedEvents)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("multipliedEvent:\t" +
 mea.Event.sender + " " + mea.Event.oldProduct.ToString() + " " + mea.Event.value.ToString() + " " + mea.Event.newProduct.ToString());
 }

var logNewMessageEvents = await newMessageEvent.GetFilterChanges<FunctionOutputHelpers.NewMessageEventArgs>(filterAllNewMessageEvent);
 foreach (var mea in logNewMessageEvents)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("newMessageEvent:\t" +
 mea.Event.sender + " " + mea.Event.ind.ToString() + " " + mea.Event.msg.ToString());
 }
 }

static public async Task GetAllChangesExample(Web3 web3, string fromAddress, string fromPassword, string contractAddress, string contractAbi)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("GetAllChangesExample:");

var contract = web3.Eth.GetContract(contractAbi, contractAddress);
 var newMessageEvent = contract.GetEvent("NewMessageEvent");
 var filterAllNewMessageEvent = await newMessageEvent.CreateFilterAsync(fromAddress);
 var logNewMessageEvents = await newMessageEvent.GetAllChanges<FunctionOutputHelpers.NewMessageEventArgs>(filterAllNewMessageEvent);
 foreach (var mea in logNewMessageEvents)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("newMessageEvent:\t" +
 mea.Event.sender + " " + mea.Event.ind.ToString() + " " + mea.Event.msg.ToString());
 }
 }

static public async Task GetContractValuesHistoryUniqueOffsetValueExample(Web3 web3, string contractAddress, HexBigInteger recentBlockNumber, ulong numberBlocks, int offset)
 {
 Console.WriteLine("GetContractValuesHistoryUniqueOffsetValueExample:");

string previousValue = "";
 for (ulong blockNumber = (ulong)recentBlockNumber.Value; blockNumber > (ulong)recentBlockNumber.Value - numberBlocks; blockNumber--)
 {
 var blockNumberParameter = new Nethereum.RPC.Eth.DTOs.BlockParameter(blockNumber);
 var valueAtOffset = await web3.Eth.GetStorageAt.SendRequestAsync(contractAddress, new HexBigInteger(offset), blockNumberParameter);
 if (valueAtOffset != previousValue)
 {
 var block = await web3.Eth.Blocks.GetBlockWithTransactionsByNumber.SendRequestAsync(blockNumberParameter);
 DateTime blockDateTime = Helpers.UnixTimeStampToDateTime((double)block.Timestamp.Value);
 Console.WriteLine("blockDateTime:\t" + blockDateTime.ToString());

for (int storageOffset = 0; storageOffset < offset+2; storageOffset++)
 {
 var valueAt = await web3.Eth.GetStorageAt.SendRequestAsync(contractAddress, new HexBigInteger(storageOffset), blockNumberParameter);
 Console.WriteLine("value:\t" + blockNumber.ToString() + " " + storageOffset.ToString() + " " + valueAt + " " + Helpers.ConvertHex(valueAt.Substring(2)));
 }
 previousValue = valueAtOffset;
 }
 }
 }
 }
}

Here are some supporting files:

  • FunctionOutputHelpers.cs
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

using Nethereum.Web3;
using Nethereum.ABI.FunctionEncoding.Attributes;

namespace MWH.MyNethereum.QuickRef
{
 static public class FunctionOutputHelpers
 {
 // event MultipliedEvent(
 // address indexed sender,
 // int oldProduct,
 // int value,
 // int newProduct
 // );

[FunctionOutput]
 public class MultipliedEventArgs
 {
 [Parameter("address", "sender", 1, true)]
 public string sender { get; set; }

[Parameter("int", "oldProduct", 2, false)]
 public int oldProduct { get; set; }

[Parameter("int", "value", 3, false)]
 public int value { get; set; }

[Parameter("int", "newProduct", 4, false)]
 public int newProduct { get; set; }

}

//event NewMessageEvent(
 // address indexed sender,
 // uint256 indexed ind,
 // string msg
 //);

[FunctionOutput]
 public class NewMessageEventArgs
 {
 [Parameter("address", "sender", 1, true)]
 public string sender { get; set; }

[Parameter("uint256", "ind", 2, true)]
 public int ind { get; set; }

[Parameter("string", "msg", 3, false)]
 public string msg { get; set; }
 }
 }
}
  • Helpers.cs
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace MWH.MyNethereum.QuickRef
{
 static public class Helpers
 {
 public static string ConvertHex(String hexString)
 {
 try
 {
 string ascii = string.Empty;

for (int i = 0; i < hexString.Length; i += 2)
 {
 String hs = string.Empty;

hs = hexString.Substring(i, 2);
 uint decval = System.Convert.ToUInt32(hs, 16);
 char character = System.Convert.ToChar(decval);
 ascii += character;

}

return ascii;
 }
 catch (Exception ex) { Console.WriteLine(ex.Message); }

return string.Empty;
 }

public static DateTime UnixTimeStampToDateTime(double unixTimeStamp)
 {
 // Unix timestamp is seconds past epoch
 System.DateTime dtDateTime = new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, System.DateTimeKind.Utc);
 dtDateTime = dtDateTime.AddSeconds(unixTimeStamp); // .ToLocalTime();
 return dtDateTime;
 }

public static DateTime JavaTimeStampToDateTime(double javaTimeStamp)
 {
 // Java timestamp is milliseconds past epoch
 System.DateTime dtDateTime = new DateTime(1970, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, System.DateTimeKind.Utc);
 dtDateTime = dtDateTime.AddMilliseconds(javaTimeStamp); // .ToLocalTime();
 return dtDateTime;
 }
 }
}

Here’s the Solidity code that is used to implement the Ethereum contract used in these examples:

  • Test3.sol
pragma solidity 0.4.19;

contract Test3 {

int public _product;
string[5] _msgs;
 
event MultipliedEvent(
address indexed sender,
int oldProduct,
int value,
int newProduct
);
 
event NewMessageEvent(
address indexed sender,
uint256 indexed ind,
string msg
);

function Test3() public {
_product = 1;
}

function multiply(int value) public returns(int product) {
int old = _product;
_product = value * _product;
MultipliedEvent( msg.sender, old, value, _product );
return _product;
}
 
function getProduct() public constant returns(int product) {
return _product;
}

function setMsg(uint256 i, string m) public returns(uint256 mi) {
_msgs[i] = m;
NewMessageEvent( msg.sender, i, m);
return -i;
}

function getMsg(uint256 index) public constant returns(string m) {
return _msgs[index];
}
}

I realize that this is a fairly crude way to publish code examples.  Any suggestions for a better approach will be appreciated.

Best regards,
Michael Herman (Toronto)

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Filed under .NET Development, blockchain, Ethereum, Nethereum